We are proud to introduce our new ejabberd release, ejabberd 16.06. As usual it includes many bug fixes, but also several improvements.
The big improvement in this release is a new Access Control List (ACL) infrastructure. ACL rules are used in ejabberd config file to define fine-grained access to ejabberd features.
In ejabberd 16.06, the ACL configuration has been much improved to make it both simpler to use and easier to read. Moreover, ACL and access rules are not mandatory anymore when configuring access restrictions for a feature or a module: You can just inline the user, for example, making small configuration much easier to setup properly.
To make you even more comfortable, our new code is still supporting the old syntax and you can mix old and new syntax. It means that you can still use your existing configuration file and that you can migrate incrementally, as needed.The new ACL syntax
New access rule will look like this:access_rules: my_access: - allow: admins - deny: blocked - allow: - user: "email@example.com" - ip: "184.108.40.206/32" - allow: moderators
This is an example definition for my_access rule. It is composed of four groups. They are evaluated from top to bottom order. the first with all listed acl rules evaluated as true is used as result. If none of them matches, evaluation fallback to default value deny. Above definition can be parsed as: if user belongs to ACL definition admins, return allow, if not, and user belongs to ACL definition blocked, return deny. otherwise for user “firstname.lastname@example.org” when connected from ip: “220.127.116.11” return allow, and for users in ACL definition moderators return allow as well, in all other cases return deny.
We can see in this example two new additions that were introduced in this rewrite:
You can use any rule that is allowed inside acl: sections (like user, server, resource, user_glob, etc.) and one additional rule that is allowed only inside access_rules: section, acl: NameOfACL that will look for definition of NameOfAcl inside acl: section and use it for matching. If you have only one ACL rule name to use you can use short form - allow: acl_rule, additionally - allow: all or - deny: all can be shorted still to - allow and ‘- deny`.
Shapers can also be specified using new syntax, but they now go into shaper_rules: section and they look like that:shaper_rules: my_shaper: - 100: admin - 10: all
Rules defined in access: section will use old syntax, and work as before, so you don’t need to update your old config, to adapt it to that change.
At last, one can define module specific access rules directly in modules configuration section, this is simpler to understand when reading configuration.
Let’s get a simple example of the changes. With previous ACL implementation, one could have this:acl: bad_servers: ip: - "XXX.XXX.XXX.XXX/32" admin: user: - "aleksey": "localhost" access: muc_admin: admin: allow muc_create: local: allow muc: all: allow s2s: bad_servers: deny all: allow c2s_shaper: admin: none all: normal modules: mod_muc: access: muc access_create: muc_create access_persistent: muc_create access_admin: muc_admin
Which can be translated to this since ejabberd 16.06 with new ACL implementation:acl: admin: user: "aleksey@localhost" access_rules: s2s: - deny: - ip: "XXX.XXX.XXX.XXX/32" - allow c2s_shaper: - none: admin - normal modules: mod_muc: access: - allow access_create: - allow: local access_persistent: - allow: local access_admin: - allow: admin
Shorter and clearer. Please also note that you can use the JID literally as a string. The previous awkward username: domain syntax can go away.Changes
This is a selection of the most relevant changes:Config
As usual, the release is tagged in the Git source code repository on Github.
The source package and binary installers are available at ProcessOne.
If you suspect that you’ve found a bug, please search or fill a bug report on Github.
There have been many people who had problems with HTTP upload in the most recent versions. It appears the vast majority of connection issues with http uploads appear to be related to one of the following:
1. Monal requires HTTPS
2. iOS requires a valid certificate
3. iOS requires a certain set of ciphers (anurodhp/Monal#35 (comment))
I am making a free Media Portal client for Apple TV. At the moment I’m calling this guy TVPortal. This is mostly driven by my desire to watch my recorded tv shows on Appletv.
Phase 1 will be to to watch recorded content.
Phase 2 epg and record scheduling from appletv.
Phase 3 will be live streaming tv.
For me personally this will be the holy grail for Appletv. A single box that can handle all of my media needs including OTA free TV. Of course the DVR component would require a separate box as Media portal is an open source Windows dvr. If you are interested, please email me (email@example.com). I would like to test this a lot before we go live in the App Store.
The backend code for phase 1 is nearly complete, once I have a basic ui, we will begin testing. I will update this post With further details as the app progresses.
In this video, Christophe Romain introduces Docker and ProcessOne work in progress to support Docker-based ejabberd deployments.
The video was recorded at ejabberd Advanced Erlang Workshop in Paris.
You can watch the full talk online:
You can also browse the slides:
Here is the video of my talk at Golang Paris Meetup in June (In French). Topic is about writing messaging applications in Go.
Here are the slides:
Elixir Paris Meetup will happen on July 5th in downtown Paris, at Remix Coworking.
The programme includes the following talks (in French):
You can register to attend on Paris.ex meetup page: Elixir Paris Meetup #8
Welcome to the 11th issue of our newsletter. You can subscribe to the XMPP Radar newsletter and receive it in your inbox at the end of each month. Here are the links we found interesting in May:What 671 million push notifications say about how people spend their day
Push notifications are a cornerstone of every mobile app’s engagement and retention strategy, yet we know so little about them.Personalized push notifications can increase open rates up to 800%
Apps that blast out push notifications are missing out on an opportunity to encourage engagement, with personalized notifications driving significantly higher results across the 1.5 billion messages analyzed for a new report from Leanplum.Is instant messaging the next innovation for online learning?
The Economist magazine published recently an article titled “The Slack Generation”, highlighting the growing importance of messaging software in the workplace. The article pointed out three main workplace changes that have led to Slack’s rise.XyBot, an XMPP bot that allows users to interact with Asterisk
Another feature that I believe can improve the user experience is the possibility of interact with your telephone system (Asterisk) directly from your IM client.Native web push notifications with Angular 2
The Notifications API has been available for some browsers for a while now. Alex Castillo is bringing this powerful API to the Angular world in the form of a library, making it more accessible and reusable for developers.Is this the end of decentralisation?
Signal, which is developed by Moxie and Open Whisper Systems, is a tool for secure messaging between mobile devices. It has faced criticism since Signal is built on a centralised platform. The criticism was fueled even further by an idea that LibreSignal, an independent build of Signal, would not be able to federate and talk to the Signal servers.
This year a significant number of students are working on RTC-related projects as part of Google Summer of Code, under the umbrella of the Debian Project. You may have already encountered some of them blogging on Planet or participating in mailing lists and IRC.WebRTC plugins for popular CMS and web frameworks
There are already a range of pseudo-WebRTC plugins available for CMS and blogging platforms like WordPress, unfortunately, many of them are either not releasing all their source code, locking users into their own servers or requiring the users to download potentially untrustworthy browser plugins (also without any source code) to use them.
Mesut is making plugins for genuinely free WebRTC with open standards like SIP. He has recently created the WPCall plugin for WordPress, based on the highly successful DruCall plugin for WebRTC in Drupal.
Keerthana has started creating a similar plugin for MediaWiki.
What is great about these plugins is that they don't require any browser plugins and they work with any server-side SIP infrastructure that you choose. Whether you are routing calls into a call center or simply using them on a personal blog, they are quick and convenient to install. Hopefully they will be made available as packages, like the DruCall packages for Debian and Ubuntu, enabling even faster installation with all dependencies.
Would you like to try running these plugins yourself and provide feedback to the students? Would you like to help deploy them for online communities using Drupal, WordPress or MediaWiki to power their web sites? Please come and discuss them with us in the Free-RTC mailing list.
You can read more about how to run your own SIP proxy for WebRTC in the RTC Quick Start Guide.Finding all the phone numbers and ham radio callsigns in old emails
Do you have phone numbers and other contact details such as ham radio callsigns in old emails? Would you like a quick way to data-mine your inbox to find them and help migrate them to your address book?
Jaminy is working on Python scripts to do just that. Her project takes some inspiration from the Telify plugin for Firefox, which detects phone numbers in web pages and converts them to hyperlinks for click-to-dial. The popular libphonenumber from Google, used to format numbers on Android phones, is being used to help normalize any numbers found. If you would like to test the code against your own mailbox and address book, please make contact in the #debian-data channel on IRC.A truly peer-to-peer alternative to SIP, XMPP and WebRTC
Several students (Simon, Olivier, Nicolas and Alok) are actively collaborating on this project, some of them have been fortunate enough to participate at SFL's offices in Montreal, Canada. These GSoC projects have also provided a great opportunity to raise Debian's profile in Montreal ahead of DebConf17 next year.Linux Desktop Telepathy framework and reSIProcate
Another group of students, Mateus, Udit and Balram have been busy working on C++ projects involving the Telepathy framework and the reSIProcate SIP stack. Telepathy is the framework behind popular softphones such as GNOME Empathy that are installed by default on the GNU/Linux desktop.
I previously wrote about starting a new SIP-based connection manager for Telepathy based on reSIProcate. Using reSIProcate means more comprehensive support for all the features of SIP, better NAT traversal, IPv6 support, NAPTR support and TLS support. The combined impact of all these features is much greater connectivity and much greater convenience.
The students are extending that work, completing the buddy list functionality, improving error handling and looking at interaction with XMPP.Streamlining provisioning of SIP accounts
Currently there is some manual effort for each user to take the SIP account settings from their Internet Telephony Service Provider (ITSP) and transpose these into the account settings required by their softphone.
Pranav has been working to close that gap, creating a JAR that can be embedded in Java softphones such as Jitsi, Lumicall and CSipSimple to automate as much of the provisioning process as possible. ITSPs are encouraged to test this client against their services and will be able to add details specific to their service through Github pull requests.
The project also hopes to provide streamlined provisioning mechanisms for privately operated SIP PBXes, such as the Asterisk and FreeSWITCH servers used in small businesses.Improving SIP support in Apache Camel and the Jitsi softphone
Nik has been looking at issues faced by SIP users in both projects, adding support for the MESSAGE method in camel-sip and looking at why users sometimes see multiple password prompts for SIP accounts in Jitsi.
Many of us have been lucky to meet GSoC students attending DebConf, FOSDEM and other events in the past. From this year, Google now expects the students to complete GSoC before they become eligible for any travel assistance. Some of the students will still be at DebConf16 next month, assisted by the regular travel budget and the diversity funding initiative. Nik and Mesut were already able to travel to Vienna for the recent MiniDebConf / LinuxWochen.at
As mentioned earlier, several of the students and the mentors at Savoir Faire Linux are based in Montreal, Canada, the destination for DebConf17 next year and it is great to see the momentum already building for an event that promises to be very big.Explore the world of Free Real-Time Communications (RTC)
If you are interesting in knowing more about the Free RTC topic, you may find the following resources helpful:
We have been very fortunate to build a large team of mentors around the RTC-themed projects for 2016. Many of them are first time GSoC mentors and/or new to the Debian community. Some have successfully completed GSoC as students in the past. Each of them brings unique experience and leadership in their domain.Helping GSoC projects in 2016 and beyond
Not everybody wants to commit to being a dedicated mentor for a GSoC student. In fact, there are many ways to help without being a mentor and many benefits of doing so.
Simply looking out for potential applicants for future rounds of GSoC and referring them to the debian-outreach mailing list or an existing mentor helps ensure we can identify talented students early and design projects around their capabilities and interests.
Testing the projects on an ad-hoc basis, greeting the students at DebConf and reading over the student wikis to find out where they are and introduce them to other developers in their area are all possible ways to help the projects succeed and foster long term engagement.
Google gives Debian a USD $500 grant for each student who completes a project successfully this year. If all 2016 students pass, that is over $10,000 to support Debian's mission.
Are you all about realtime apps? Well, now you can be famous and win $500 to teach the Internet. Fanout is excited to team up with the hack.guides() 2016 Tutorial Contest. Any realtime app submitted to the contest that uses Pushpin or Fanout Cloud will qualify for a chance to win a $500 prize.
See the contest here: http://tutorials.pluralsight.com/contest
GSoC students have officially been coding since 23 May (about 2.5 weeks) and are almost half-way to the mid-summer evaluation (20 - 27 June). Students who haven't completed some meaningful work before that deadline don't receive payment and in such a large program, there is no possibility to give students extensions or let them try and catch up later.
Every project and every student are different, some are still getting to know their environment while others have already done enough to pass the mid-summer evaluation.
I'd like to share a few tips to help students ensure they don't inadvertently fail the mid-summer evaluationKill electronic distractions
As a developer of real-time communications projects, many people will find it ironic or hypocritical that this is at the top of my list.
Switch off the mobile phone or put it in silent mode so it doesn't even vibrate. Research has suggested that physically turning it off and putting it out of sight has significant benefits. Disabling the voicemail service can be an effective way of making sure no time is lost listening to a bunch of messages later. Some people may grumble at first but if they respect you, they'll get into the habit of emailing you and waiting for you to respond when you are not working.
Get out a piece of paper and make a list of all the desktop notifications on your computer, whether they are from incoming emails, social media, automatic updates, security alerts or whatever else. Then figure out how to disable them all one-by-one.
Use email to schedule fixed times for meetings with mentors. Some teams/projects also have fixed daily or weekly times for IRC chat. For a development project like GSoC, it is not necessary or productive to be constantly on call for 3 straight months.Commit every day
Habits are a powerful thing. Successful students have a habit of making at least one commit every day. The "C" in GSoC is for Code and commits are a good way to prove that coding is taking place.
GSoC is not a job, it is like a freelance project. There is no safety-net for students who get sick or have an accident and mentors are not bosses, each student is expected to be their own boss. Although Google has started recommending students work full time, 40 hours per week, it is unlikely any mentors have any way to validate these hours. Mentors can look for a commit log, however, and simply won't be able to pass a student if there isn't code.
There may be one day per week where a student writes a blog or investigates a particularly difficult bug and puts a detailed report in the bug tracker but by the time we reach the second or third week of GSoC, most students are making at least one commit in 3 days out of every 5.Consider working away from home/family/friends
Can you work without anybody interrupting you for at least five or six hours every day?
Do you feel pressure to help with housework, cooking, siblings or other relatives? Even if there is no pressure to do these things, do you find yourself wandering away from the computer to deal with them anyway?
Do family, friends or housemates engage in social activities, games or other things in close proximity to where you work?
All these things can make a difference between passing and failing.
Maybe these things were tolerable during high school or university. GSoC, however, is a stepping stone into professional life and that means making a conscious decision to shut those things out and focus. Some students have the ability to manage these distractions well, but it is not for everybody. Think about how leading sports stars or musicians find a time and space to be "in the zone" when training or rehearsing, this is where great developers need to be too.
Some students find the right space in a public library or campus computer lab. Some students have been working in hacker spaces or at empty desks in local IT companies. These environments can also provide great networking opportunities.Managing another summer job concurrently with GSoC
It is no secret that some GSoC students have another job as well. Sometimes the mentor is aware of it, sometimes it has not been disclosed.
The fact is, some students have passed GSoC while doing a summer job or internship concurrently but some have also failed badly in both GSoC and their summer job. Choosing one or the other is the best way to succeed, get the best results and maximize the quality of learning and community interaction. For students in this situation, now it is not too late to make the decision to withdraw from GSoC or the other job.
If doing a summer job concurrently with GSoC is unavoidable, the chance of success can be greatly increased by doing the GSoC work in the mornings, before starting the other job. Some students have found that they actually finish more quickly and produce better work when GSoC is constrained to a period of 4 or 5 hours each morning and their other job is only in the afternoon. On the other hand, if a student doesn't have the motivation or energy to get up and work on GSoC before the other job then this is a strong sign that it is better to withdraw from GSoC now.
2016 is definitely the year of the awakening of XMPP. It is already mid-year, but here is what happened already, and what we can do next.Matthew Wild: non-tech requirements
At the FOSDEM 2016 and XMPP Summit 19, Matthew Wild, lead developer of Prosody, pushed the XMPP community into « Exploring the non-technical requirements of open communication« , which lead to the creation of a very small website (although unmaintained), but still a very strong initiative: modernxmpp.org. As an XSF Council member, Matthew opened up minds with this thinking out of the box.Nicolas Vérité: 3 generations of IM
I did my part, by contributing to the wake up call, with « The state of XMPP and instant messaging, The awakening« , followed by « Welcome to the third generation of Instant Messaging! » part 1 (1st and 2nd gen of IM) and part 2 (3rd gen of IM, synthesis matrix), and « 3 gens of IM, next steps for XMPP« . I believe this had its positive effects as well, as some items were actively discussed forward at the XMPP Summit 20 (hosted by Atlassian, makers of the 3rd gen IM HipChat, based on XMPP), and the feedback from the nice guys of Tigase said: « The most prevalent topic at the summit was the future of XMPP communication, and how it can fit into the third generation of instant messaging. ».Daniel Gultsch: mobile XMPP
Daniel Gultsch, lead developer of Conversations.im Android client, has written a thought-provoking piece on « The State of Mobile XMPP in 2016« , pointing at strengths and weaknesses, and debunking some misunderstanding.Georg Lukas: easy XMPP
Today, it is Georg Lukas, pointing out « Easy XMPP« , with « Easy Onboarding » and « Easy Roster Invitations« . To quote Georg, « After reflecting upon all these things though I must say that I am surprised how much low-hanging fruit we’ve ignored over the last decade or so ».Outcome?
It is clear that these many wake up calls have echoed with each other. We have quite a clear path, that may need a little refinement. Now it is a matter of priorities and formalisation, given the limited resources we have…
Is it time we start to write a vision statement and a roadmap for the next 6 to 12 months?
As always you can find the artifacts in Maven Central:<dependency>
Some API has also been revised for less ambigious and easier usage, e.g. timeouts are now represented by java.time.Duration instead of a int/long (which somtimes were seconds, sometimes milliseconds) and the xml:lang attribute is now represented by java.util.Locale instead of String to prevent improper usage.Here's a more complete list of changes:
Swift 3.0 was released a couple of months ago and we’ve had lots of feedback from users, so we’d like to start off this blog post by thanking you all for this, we never tire of hearing how great Swift is!
Many new features were introduced in 3.0, a list of which can be found in the changelog, but today we would like to bring your attention to two of those: File Transfe r and Keyword Highlighting.File Transfer
Swift can now transfer files via the ‘Jingle File Transfer’ protocol. We’ve made it nice and east to start transferring files to your contacts, simply drag the required file onto an open chat and voilà.Keyword Highlighting
Keyword highlighting is now supported in Swift, this allows users to setup Swift to alert them to activity that matches their configured highlighting rules. This was described in a previous blog post. To get started use the “Edit Highlight Rules” menu item and set your required rules.
A brief overview of XMPP Summit 20
CC by-sa, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 international
This is the second and last part of my “Welcome to the third generation of Instant Messaging!” post, you can read part 1 here.
The first generation was lead by ICQ and followed by all its clones and is characterised by multi-window desktop software, with through sporadic internet connection, all centered around the concept of ‘presence’.
The second generation was triggered by the multi-touch smartphone revolution and includes was lead by WhatsApp and followed by all its clones, with the main focus on making chats less synchronous.
This is the third generation.3rd generation: group messaging
The group messaging revolution began around 2015-2016, with the advent of Slack and HipChat. Other services in the third generation are Zulip, Otalk, Kaiwa, Mattermost, Let's Chat, Rocket.Chat. Since the third genration revolution is still ongoing, observing and understanding what is happening is much harder. We don’t yet have any strong long-term feedback, and the race is ongoing. But again, a new generation, a new disruption is evolving.a. Continuous computing experience
The context evolved once again. Mobile have overtaken sales of other forms of computer. People use smartphones as their first (sometimes only) device. But, overall, the smartphone revolution calmed down a little. Many companies now practice “BYOD” (“Bring Your Own Device”), allowing employees to use their personal smartphone and laptop for work. People generally use a laptop at work, a tablet on the couch, and a smartphone on their commute, coffee pause, and lunch break, not to mention parties, family dinners and toilet breaks.b. Presence makes a shy comeback, but remains a secondary feature
We learned that in the 2nd generation presence was missed by users when removed from apps, or still used as a secondary feature. When it comes to presence, there is continuity between 2nd and 3rd generation, but with a slight come back: although presence does not always comes as a central feature, it is only one click or tap away.c. Mobile AND desktop in the real world
The 3rd generation IMs come in different flavors: the app is available on one or two (or more) mobile platforms and on one or two (or more) desktop platforms. These software pieces may not come with feature parity due to all these apps’ lifecycles, but the overall user experience is mostly there already. On desktop, software is often available in the web browser. And when it comes as desktop software, it is often just the web app that is delivered into a packaged software working on web technologies.d. Single window mode, for simplicity, and flat design
All the 2nd generation IMs that now provide some desktop experience offer single window software. Not because of the web technologies they are based on, just because multi-window is far too complex for massive user bases.
The responsive design of the few desktop apps and websites of the 2nd generation has been generalised, and consequently brought about the 3rd generation. If you resize your desktop app window to a tiny size, you have a UX close to that of the mobile app (minus multi touch input), when you resize it to average size, you get a tablet-like experience, and when you really enlarge it, you have the full blown desktop experience.
Flat design is the default of the 3rd generation, whether it is done in Apple style, Material design by Google, Metro-style by Microsoft. This is a minimalist UI design genre or language, getting away from the skeuomorphic paradigm, that immitates previous generations’ interfaces. Even 2nd generation apps are now phasing out non-flat design.e. Group chat is the main core feature
Group apps of the 3rd generation IM naturally prioritise group chats, or at least do not relegate them as a secondary feature. Conceptually, in group apps, the chat rooms or channels are not just an extension of one-to-one chats, but rather one-to-one chats are a downsized version of group chats. That is one very small technical difference from 2nd generation that makes for a totally different user experience.
Other more obvious differences are groups having persistent files and links and stars/favorites, and room/channel notifications. And let’s not forget full text search, but more on that in a bit.
Some may argue that the 3rd generation IM is a return to what IRC was: a group chat at the core. Indeed, but it undeniable that the 3rd generation IM is much more user-friendly and technologically advanced than IRC clients.f. Continuous devices synchronisation
The 3rd generation is multi-device by default, by nature, and because it is an extension of the 2nd generation which was mostly mobile-only (at least at the beginning), as it completes the devices’ scope with desktop apps. The idea is to offer continuous flow, not only with message sync, but also with unread and file sync, outside the app.
The 3rd generation is still as asynchronous as the 2nd generation, but it adds email notifications. These are slightly delayed notifications (non real-time), for when you can’t participate in conversations. These emails tell you what you have missed, via a bulk of messages at a time. It might not seem like much, but it fills a gap and underlines the missing parts of asynchronicity.g. Persistence of in-chat files
In-chat media files have stayed and the 3rd generation brought some improvement, with persistent files directories, often materialised in sidebars. This is an advancement over the in-app galleries of the 2nd generation, which only allowed you to scroll through pictures.
The Ffile transfer of the old days might be missing now, for file exchanges in fire-and-forget mode (out-of-chat propose+accept UX), with no archive, and no search. The common workaround is using external, third party file sync services such as DropBox, Box, Google Drive.h. Voice and video: stagnation or regression
Since 3rd generation apps focus on groups, multi-party VoIP is the target, the Holy Grail that the 2nd generation has not achieved. This is very difficult to achieve, which may be why implementors are taking their time. The goal might be not to disappoint high expectations.i. Specificities: full text search, stars, integrations’ craze, ChatBots
One of the most prominent - if not the most prominent - features of 3rd generation is full text search of messages and file. One can finally search old messages and conversations, same as you can do with emails. In a multi-device context that can be very useful, for example when you recall the general idea of a conversation but not all the details. Some seek to monetise the archive, by limiting a free user’s searches.
One can also star/favorite or pin almost everything! It started shyly in the 2nd generation, but the 3rd generalised it. Starred/favourited content generally features in sidebars, sometimes adding unnecessary clutter to the overall appearence and UX.
After group focus and search, the integrations’ craze is possibly the most important trait of the 3rd generation. Integrations are hooks or links to third party apps and services. They help fill the gap between these apps and the chat system. It helps avoiding disruptions between chat and other apps: team mabers always have to switch between apps, now they have all in one place and in real-time. It increases retention and engagement on the chat app.
ChatBots are also becoming huge, since they can help with some serious tasks, and even with some fun, unproductive (ahem procrastination) ones, and the underlying AI is evolving rapidly.
Integrations and ChatBots are tightly linked to the ChatOps movement. ChatOps is “everything of the business process on chat”. Integrations and ChatBots progress and refine together, enabling more team fluidity.
Integrations are huge, not only because everybody jumps on the bandwagon, but also because it enables apps become a real marketplace. The 3rd generation IMs are generally selling subscriptions for teams (with free tier), and integrations and ChatBots enlarge their capacity to monetise.Summary
The third generation made the IM a continuous flow between all your devices, where nothing is ever missed. 3rd generation IM defining traits include: group chat first, full text search, email notifications, integrations and ChatBots.
As it is an ongoing process, the usages will refe during the coming period.Generation 2.5: specialisation, segmentation
While the 2nd and 3rd generation IMs want to reach the mass market, some 2nd generation apps have chosen more specialised markets. This is the generation 2.5, which sits between generation 2 and generation 3.Ephemeral messaging
Ephemeral messaging is about self-destructing messages. These could be photo-only or photo-first apps, but also disapearing text messages. Snapchat is the best known example.Secure messaging
Encryption is at the core. Sometimes, expected features such as multi-device are missing. Encryption is evolving so fast that some apps become obsolete rapidly. Recent, highly publicised concerns surrounding privacy and transparancy will not be resolved quickly, easily or on a supra-national basis.Mesh networks
Mesh networks use no central servers, rather using mostly the cell network, bluetooth, and wifi. They are used for co-located and synchronous events such as festivals or protests.Side notes
Here are some general observations, that might not obviously fit in one generation or another.
Account creation and contact management are features that have evolved a lot. And there is no clear pattern shaping up that enables the discerning of a general directions tied to a specific generation.
Message receipts (such as sent, received, read/seen) appeared around the 2nd generation as these imitate the SMS experience, but then disappeared from the 3rd generation. They may yet make a comeback as auditability is clearly important in corporate and regulatory contexts.
Speaking about monetization: the 1st generation was all around ads, and interestingly enough around avatars in Asia. The 2nd generation is about gathering user data for big data and profiling/targetting, and interestingly enough around mobile-local-social marketplaces in eastern countries. The 3rd generation is about building subscription platforms, with integrations and ChatBots marketplaces.
Another interesting trend are the apps adding IM to their core functionnalities, despite not being IM apps. Indeed some apps add basic to complete IM features, in order to generate acquisition, engagement, and retention. To give an example, IM is a helper for the main focus of photo sharing and dating apps.
The adoption and social impact of IM is different: the 1st generation was about reaching a mass market, and is now dead (some zombie apps are still walking around). The 2nd was about the generalisation of IM with an initial focus on mobile, but still with disjointed networks, and incompatible apps. The 3rd generation will probably not take over the 2nd generation since the focus is on groups and collaboration. So 2nd and 3rd generations are here to co-exist for a while, and will probably feed off each other in features and usages. Of course the 3rd generation is still in its infancy, so expect more to come at a fast pace.
As usages and technologies evolve with upcoming generations of users, the experience will continue to evolve rapidly and massively.
Most of these apps offer absolutely not interoperation: you have to create an account to chat with a contact with that app. Of course, the only open standards protocol XMPP enables federation, much like email does: you can send a message to a contact on another service.
This was a brief walk through: we over-summarised, and skipped a lot of aspects. Maybe you have spotted some lacking subjects, or you have different observations? Please comment below!
You are always welcome to subscribe to the MongooseIM announcement mailing-list more articles and news about the world of IM.
I own a couple of multi-channel Surround Sound music albums on DVD, Blu-Ray, and SACD discs. I wanted to extract them all to a hard drive to avoid the nuisance of putting discs in slow (and often stammering) CD/DVD/Blu-Ray players with unfriendly navigation menus, and wanted to have a backup of the audio in case the discs go bad. Each of the different formats requires different tools to convert them to a playable format, so it took me some time to figure out how to convert each one of them. I wrote up a summary of the tools and processes for future reference.